Sutra 4.34

पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानां प्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति॥३४॥

puruṣa-artha-śūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ-pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpa-pratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti ॥34॥

puruṣa-artha=aim of the Purusha; śūnyānāṁ=devoid of; guṇānāṁ=of the three gunas; pratiprasavaḥ=re-absorption; re-mergence; kaivalyaṁ=final liberation; svarūpa=in real or own nature; pratiṣṭhā=establishment; vā=or; citiśaktiriti=of the power of pure consciousness॥34॥

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Aranya

The State Of The Self In Itself Or Liberation Is Realised When The Gunas (Having Provided For The Experience And Liberation Of Purusa) Are Without Any Objective To Fulfill And Disappear Into Their Causal Substance. In Other Words, It Is Absolute Consciousness Established In Its Own Self.

Taimni

Kaivalya is the state (of Enlightenment) following re-mergence of the Gunas because of their becoming devoid of the object of the Purusa. In this state the Purusa is established in his Real nature which is pure Consciousness.

Sw. Satchidananda

Thus, the supreme state of Independence manifests while t he guṇas reabsorb themselves into Prakṛti, having no more purpose to serve the Puruṣa. Or [to look from another angle] the power of pure consciousness settles in its own pure nature.

Bryant

Ultimate liberation is when the gunas, devoid of any purpose for the purusha, return to their original [latent] state; in other words, when the power of consciousness is situated in its own essential nature.

Sutra 4.33

क्षणप्रतियोगी परिणामापरान्तनिग्रार्ह्यः क्रमः॥३३॥

kṣaṇa-pratiyogī pariṇāma-aparānta nirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ ॥33॥

kṣaṇa=moments; pratiyogī=corresponding; pariṇāma=transformation; aparānta=at the end; nirgrāhyaḥ=entirely apprehensible; kramaḥ=process, succession॥33॥

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Aranya

What Belongs To The Moments And Is Indicated By The Completion Of A Particular Mutation Is Sequence.

Taimni

The process, corresponding to moments which become apprehensible at the final end of transformation (of the Gunas), is Kramah.

Sw. Satchidananda

The sequence [referred to above] means an uninterrupted succession of moments which can be recognized at the end of their transformations.

Bryant

The progression [of any object through time] corresponds to a [series of] moments. It is perceivable at the final [moment] of change.

Discussion

The word “krama” (sequence) was introduced by Patanjali in the previous sutra (sutra 3.32). That sutra states that “on attainment of Dharma-megha samadhi the sequence of mutations of the three gunas comes to an end”. In the current sutra (sutra 3.33) he introduces another term, “kshana” (the smallest moment in time). The current sutra states that even though every thing in the material world is going through constant change, from one moment to the next, it becomes perceivable only when a major and final mutation is observed. Vyasa gives the example of a new shirt which although is getting old every moment, the fact that it is old is observed only when just by touching it, it begins to disintegrate. Similar transformation/mutation can be seen in clay becoming a pot, a pot breaking into pieces, the pieces becoming powder and the powder finally again becoming clay. Another example of how momentary changes are unnoticeable is the familiar case of a film seen on a screen which is being run through a movie projector. Even though discrete images are being fed to the projector, what we see on the screen seems continuous. That is because the speed at which the images are progressing is too fast for the eyes to perceive.

In the case of a yogi on a spiritual path, the buddhi (intellect) goes through constant mutations in the form of raga (likes), dvesha (dislikes) etc. However, a final mutation in the form of self-realization is achieved when a person attains the state of Kaivalya. At that time, the yogi has no concept of time since there is no mutation going on in the mind from one moment to the next.

Thus, material reality is constantly going through change. Constant change may be noticed even in entities that are considered eternal. Vyasa states that there are two kinds of eternality – immutable (kutastha nityata) and mutable (parinami nityata). Of these, Purusha belongs to the first category and the gunas belong to the second category. Even though the evolutes of the gunas like the intellect, mind etc. go through constant change, the essence of the gunas in the form of sattva, rajas and tamas stays the same. Hence the essence of Purusha and the gunas are both considered eternal. Even though

Sutra 4.32

ततः कृतार्थानां परिणामक्रमसमाप्तिर्गुणानाम्॥३२॥

tataḥ kr̥tārthānaṁ pariṇāma-krama-samāptir-guṇānām ॥32॥

tataḥ=by that; kr̥tārthānaṁ=having fulfilled their object; pariṇāma=of the changes; krama=process; samāptih=the end; guṇānām=of the three gunas॥32॥

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Aranya

After The Emergence Of That (Virtue-Pouring Cloud) The Gunas Having Fulfilled Their Purpose, The Sequence Of Their Mutation Ceases.

Taimni

The three Gunas having fulfilled their object, the process of change (in the Gunas) comes to an end.

Sw. Satchidananda

Then the guṇas terminate their sequence of transformations because they have fulfilled their purpose.

Bryant

As a result, there is a cessation of the ongoing permutations of the gunas, their purpose now fulfilled.

Discussion

In sutra 2.18 we were told that the purpose of Prakriti is twofold – to provide worldly experience to the Purusha and to help Purusha attain liberation. On the attainment of Dharma-megha samadhi, these two objectives have been fulfilled. Kleshas (afflictions) and karma have been eliminated (sutra 4.30). We have seen before that the Prakriti has the three gunas – sattva, rajas and tamas – as its constituents. It is the constant mutations and changes in the dominance of one guna over the other two that causes all the experiences. Once the final purpose, that of liberation (kaivalya as a result of dharma-megha samadhi) has been attained, the gunas have no more function to perform. They settle down in a state of perfect equilibrium. 

Sutra 4.31

तदा सर्वावरणमलापेतस्य ज्ञानस्यानन्त्याज्ज्ञेयमल्पम्॥३१॥

tadā sarva-āvaraṇa-malāpetasya jñānasya-ānantyāt jñeyamalpam ॥31॥

tadā=then; sarva=all; āvaraṇa=that which covers up, veils; mala=impurities; apetasya=devoid of, from which is removed; jñānasya=of knowledge; ānantyāt=because of the infinity of; jñeyam=knowable; alpam=little ॥31॥

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Aranya

Then On Account Of The Infinitude Of Knowledge, Freed From The Cover Of All Impurities, The Knowables Appear As Few.

Taimni

Then, in consequence of the removel of all obscuration and impurities, that which can be known (through the mind) is but little in comparison with the infinity of knowledge (obtained in Enlightenment).

Sw. Satchidananda

Then all the coverings and impurities of knowledge are totally removed. Because of the infinity of this knowledge, what remains to be known is almost nothing.

Bryant

At this point, because of the unlimited nature of knowledge when all impurities have been removed from it, that which remains to be known is little.

Discussion


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Sutra 4.30

ततः क्लेशकर्मनिवृत्तिः॥३०॥

tataḥ kleśa-karma-nivr̥ttiḥ ॥30॥

tataḥ=from there; kleśa=afflictions; karma=karma – actions and reactions; nivr̥ttiḥ=cessation, freedom from॥30॥

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Aranya

From That Afflictions And Actions Cease.

Taimni

Then follows freedom from Klesas and Karmas.

Sw. Satchidananda

From that samādhi all afflictions and karmas cease.

Bryant

From this comes the cessation of the kleshas [impediments to yoga] and karma.

Discussion

On the attainment of dharma-megha samadhi, the five kleshas listed in sutra 2.3 – avidya (ignorance), asmita (egoism), raga (likes), dvesha (dislikes), and abhinivesha (fear of death) – are destroyed. Moreover, the three kinds of karmas mentioned in sutra 4.7 – shukla (white), krishna (black) and mixed – are also destroyed. As we know klesha and karma act like cause and effect. The sequence of life and death called “samsara” is a result of these karmas which are stored in the karmashaya (the storehouse of karmas). Once these are removed, the yogi lives the life as a “jivanmukta” or liberated while still living. Although the yogi does not incur any fresh karma, he still has to go through the “prarabdha karma” which is the karma allocated at birth for this life span.

Sutra 4.29

प्रसंख्यानेऽप्यकुसीदस्य सर्वथा विवेकख्यातेर्धर्ममेघः समाधिः॥२९॥

prasaṁkhyāne-‘py-akusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāteḥ dharma-meghas-samādhiḥ ॥29॥

prasaṁkhyāne=in the knowledge of the meditative wisdom; api=even; akusīdasya=of one who has no interest; sarvathā=in every way; vivekakhyāteḥ=discrimination leading to awareness of Reality; dharma-meghaH=showering the dharma; samādhiḥ=state of meditative absorption॥29॥

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Aranya

When One Becomes Disintereested Even In Omniscience One Attains Perpetual Discriminative Enlightenment From Which Ensues The Concentration Known As Dharmamegha (Virtue-Pouring Cloud).

Taimni

In the case of one, who is able to maintain a constant state of Vairagya even towards the most exalted state of enlightenment and to exercise the highest kind of discrimination, follows Dharma-Megha-Samadhi.

Sw. Satchidananda

One who, due to his or her perfect discrimination, is totally disinterested even in the highest rewards, remains in the constant discriminative discernment, which is called dharmamegha (cloud of dharma) samādhi. [Note: The meaning of dharma includes virtue, justice, law, duty, morality, religion, religious merit and steadfast decree.]

Bryant

For one who has no interest even in [the fruits] of meditative wisdom on account of the highest degree of discriminative insight, the samadhi called dharma-megha, cloud of virtue, ensues.

Discussion

कुसीद (kuseeda) is one who collects interest every month on an investment or money loaned out. अ-कुसीद (a-kuseeda) is one who has no interest in gaining anything more from his investment. Such a person has attained the highest state of vairagya (non-attachment)

प्रसङ्ख्यान (prasamkhyana) is the state of viveka-khyati, the highest understanding of the distinction between buddhi and the soul. “Prasamkhyane akuseedasya” is about the person who has lost interest even in the siddhis that my result from the state of prasamkhyana (viveka-khyati or discriminatory wisdom). Such a person is then situated in an unbroken state of viveka-khyati. That state has been given the name of “dharma-megha” samadhi in this sutra. It is the highest state of “samprajnata samadhi” (sutra 1.17). From here it is easy to transition into the ultimate samadhi called “asamprjnata” samadhi (sutra 1.18).

Sutra 4.28

हानमेषां क्लेशवदुक्तम्॥२८॥

hānam-eṣāṁ kleśavad-uktam ॥28॥

hānam=removal; eṣāṁ=of these; kleśavat=like that of the kleshas of afflictions; uktam=has been described (earlier)॥28॥

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Aranya

It Has Been Said That Their Removal (i.e. Of Fluctuations) Follows The Same Process As The Removal Of Afflictions.

Taimni

Their removal like that of Klesas, as has been described.

Sw. Satchidananda

They can be removed, as in the case of the obstacles explained before. [See Book Two, sūtras 1, 2, 10, 11 and 26.]

Bryant

The removal [of these previous samskaras] is said to be like [the removal] of the klesha afflictions.

Sutra 4.27

तच्छिद्रेषु प्रत्ययान्तराणि संस्कारेभ्यः॥२७॥

tac-chidreṣu pratyaya-antarāṇi saṁskārebhyaḥ ॥27॥

tat-chidreṣu=during breaks in discrimination; pratyaya=thoughts; antarāṇi=other; saṁskārebhyaḥ=due to subliminal impressions (samskaras)॥27॥

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Aranya

Through Its Breaches (i.e. Breaks In Discriminative Knowledge) Arise Other Fluctuations Of The Mind Due To (Residual) Latent Impressions.

Taimni

In the intervals arise other Pratyayas from the force of Samskaras.

Sw. Satchidananda

In-between, distracting thoughts may arise due to past impressions.

Bryant

During the intervals [in this state of discriminate awareness] other ideas [arise] because of previous samskaras.

Sutra 4.26

तदा विवेकनिम्नं कैवल्यप्राग्भारं चित्तम्॥२६॥

tadā viveka-nimnaṁ kaivalya-prāg-bhāraṁ cittam ॥26॥

tadā=then; viveka-nimnaṁ=inclined toward discrimination; kaivalya=ultimate liberation; prāg-bhāraṁ=inclined toward; cittam=the mind॥26॥

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Aranya

Then The Mind Inclines Towards Discriminative Knowledge And Naturally Gravitates Towards The State Of Liberation.

Taimni

Then, verily, the mind is inclined towards discrimination and gravitating towards Kaivalya.

Sw. Satchidananda

Then the mind-stuff is inclined toward discrimination and gravitates toward Absoluteness.

Bryant

At that point, the mind, inclined toward discrimination, gravitates toward ultimate liberation.

Sutra 4.25

विशेषदर्शिन आत्मभावभावनाविनिवृत्तिः॥२५॥

viśeṣa-darśinaḥ ātmabhāva-bhāvanā-vinivr̥ttiḥ ॥25॥

viśeṣa=the distinction; darśinaḥ=of him who sees; ātmabhāva=consciousness of the Self; bhāvanā=dwelling in (the mind); vinivr̥ttiḥ=complete cessation॥25॥

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Aranya

For One Who Has Realised The Distinctive Entity, i.e. Purusa (Mentioned In The Previous Aphorism), Inquiries About The Nature Of His Self Ceases.

Taimni

The cessation (of desire) for dwelling in the consciousness of Atma for one who has seen the distinction.

Sw. Satchidananda

To one who sees the distinction between the mind and the Ātman, thoughts of mind as the Ātman cease forever.

Bryant

For one who sees the distinction [between the mind and the soul], reflecting on the nature of the self ceases.